Izvestiya of Saratov University.

Earth Sciences

ISSN 1819-7663 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1921 (Online)

For citation:

Al-Khulaifawi, I. A., Ioshpa A. R. Monitoring of monthly dynamics of thunderstorm activity in Iraq. Izvestiya of Saratov University. Earth Sciences, 2024, vol. 24, iss. 1, pp. 4-10. DOI: 10.18500/1819-7663-2024-24-1-4-10, EDN: FKPILE

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).
Full text:
(downloads: 46)
Article type: 

Monitoring of monthly dynamics of thunderstorm activity in Iraq

Al-Khulaifawi, Imad A., Southern Federal University
Ioshpa Alexander R., Southern Federal University

The article presents the study results of the monthly variability thunderstorm activity at three meteorological stations located in Iraq over a ten-year period from 2000 to 2009. This is a study based on archived data from daily meteorological observations. The study of fronts for six months a year and for ten years showed that thunderstorms most often occur in March and April, accounting for about 47.42% of all thunderstorms. Moreover, 22.3% of them are in the northern mountainous region of Iraq. 67 baroclinic and 63 barotropic cases were registered at Khanaqin Station; 42 baroclinic and 47 barotropic cases were recorded at Baghdad Airport Station; and 21 baroclinic and 27 barotropic cases were listed at Basra Airport Station. Whenever there is a change in the horizontal temperature, potential energy becomes available. Low-pressure systems usually cause sudden weather changes, including strong winds, heavy rain, thunderstorms, and other possible meteorological phenomena. This low-pressure system, which includes the Mediterranean low-pressure system and occurs in regions with predominantly westerly and reverse winds, leads to increased winds and increases the likelihood of thunderstorms and heavy rainfall. When the depression of the Red Sea connects with the depression of the Mediterranean Sea, deep cumulonimbus clouds will form, and the weather will be very bad with rain and thunderstorms (rain, thunder, lightning, maybe even hail).

  1. Абдуль Баки Ф. Х. Атмосферные явления в верхних слоях атмосферы и их влияние на формирование климата в Ираке. Багдад : Университет Аль-Мустансерия, 2001. 140 с. (араб. яз.).
  2. Updraft and downdraft. URL: https://www.britannica.com/science/updraft (дата обращения: 06.11.2023).
  3. Downdraft. URL: https://www.britannica.com/science/downdraft (дата обращения: 06.11.2023).
  4. Zipser E. J. Deep cumulonimbus cloud systems in the tropics with and without lightning // Monthly Weather Review. 1994. Vol. 122, iss. 8. P. 1837–1851. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1994)1222.0.CO;2
  5. Thunderstorm: structure. URL: https://www.britannica.com/science/updraft#/media/1/618650/19389 (дата обращения: 06.11.2023).
  6. USGS, 2004. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission’, 3-Arc Second scenes for IRAQ, Unfilled Unfinished 2.0, Global Land Cover Facility, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, February 2000.
  7. Al-Ansari N. Topography and climate of Iraq // Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. 2021. Vol. 11, № 2. P. 1–13. https://doi.org/10.47260/jesge/1121
  8. Stull R. Practical Meteorology: An Algebra-based Survey of Atmospheric Science. British Columbia, Canada: Dept. of Earth, Ocean & Atmospheric Sciences; University of British Columbia, 2017. 940 p. https://www.eoas.ubc.ca/books/Practical_Meteorology/
  9. Mutar A. G., Abdulkareem A. K., George L. E. Physical and Synoptical Characteristics of Torrential Rains over Iraq and Neighboring Regions: Cases Study. Baghdad : Al-Mustansiriya University ; Mustansiriyah University College of Science Department of Atmospheric Science, 2021. 104 p.
  10. Meteologix. URL: https://meteologix.com (дата обращения: 20.09.2023).
  11. Аль-Хулайфави И. А., Иошпа А. Р. Анализ грозовой активности на территории Ирака и Турции // Известия Уральского государственного горного университета. Серия : Дискуссионный клуб. 2023. Вып. 4 (72). С. 164–169. http://doi.org/10.21440/2307-2091-2023-4-164-169
  12. Иошпа А. Р., Аль-Хулайфави И. А. Анализ грозовой активности на территории Ирака // Известия высших учебных заведений. Северо-Кавказский регион. Серия : Естественные науки. 2023. № 2 (218). С. 75–80. https://doi.org/10.18522/1026-2237-2023-2-75-80
  13. Hiroshi I. A Micro-climatic observation in the extremely hot and dry climate in Iraq // Journal of Agricultural Meteorology. 1965. Vol. 20, iss. 3. P. 101–107. https://doi.org/10.2480/agrmet.20.101
  14. Al-Ansari N., Mawada A., Mohammad E., Salahalddin A., Knutsson S. Climate change and future long-term trends of rainfall at north-east of Iraq // Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014. Vol. 8, № 6. P. 790–805. https://10.17265/1934-7359/2014.06.014
  15. Ganesan A. L., Blunden J., Arndt D. S., Baringer M. O. State of the climate in 2010 // Special Supplement to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2011. Vol. 92, № 6. 238 p.