Izvestiya of Saratov University.
ISSN 1819-7663 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1921 (Online)

primary and true colonies

Module Organization in the Late Cretaceous Hexactinellids (Hexactinellida, Porifera)

Knowledge on the regularities of vegetative propagation and comprehension of the osculum (oscula) and subosculum structural-functional positions and interrelations in the skeleton structure have made it possible to specify the organization levels in the Late Cretaceous hexactinellids: the unitary (solitary, perifrontal and autonomous forms), transitory (solitary, autonomous and colonial forms) and colonial (primary and true colonies) ones.