modular forms

Demonstration of Gemmation among Cretaceous Skeletal Sponges – Hexactinellida

The examination of the modular organization in fossil skeletal sponges (Hexactinellida) is mainly related to a study of their vegetative reproduction. The concepts of the reproductive forms for both Recent and Mesozoic hexactinellids can be ambiguous. Examples of the skeletons of fossil sponges from the Late Cretaceous of the Volga River basin, with morphologically detached and naturally distributed sprouts interpreted as buds, are shown. 

Neogenesis in Structure of Skeletons of Late Cretaceous Sponges Contributed to the Formation of Polyosculumic Forms

Arterial directions in formation of module organization of skeleton hexactinellids are caused by vegetative forms of reproduction. It is supposed that some tendency of selection of protozoa module forms can be traced in morphogenesis of separate generic types of late Cretaceous sponges. The concept “polyosculumic„ sponges is considered in vast context personally in reference to skeletons with some osculumics formed in the result of partial regeneration of organism