Geography

Demographic Aspects of Development of Population and Urbanization in Turkmenistan

The article discusses the conditions and the need of urbanization in the country. High natural growth and the agrarian type of economy are the cause of employment problems. Internal migration in the country is directed to cities, which leads to the need to develop urbanization. The urbanization models that prevail in the country are peripheral and concentration. The classification and typology of the cities in Turkmenistan are given. The prospects of the urbanization process are estimated.

Stability of Geosystems and Geo-Environmental Risks on the Territory of the Russian Far East

Modern geosystems are formed under the influence of two main factors that are in close interaction with each other. We are talking about natural and anthropogenic factors, which are essentially opposite. The stability of geosystems is found under conditions when they are influenced by various factors and phenomena that have antagonistic characteristics. The methods used are comparative geographical, informational, paleogeographic. The materials obtained in the course of natural observations, the work of scientists, information from various funds have been used.

Atmospheric Pollution of the Irkutsk Agglomeration by Automobile Emissions

The aim of the work is to assess the contribution of vehicle emissions to air pollution of the Irkutsk agglomeration, on the example of a large industrial and transport city of Angarsk. In order to achieve the goal, emission calculations were carried out on the basis of field surveys of the composition and traffic intensity of vehicles at major intersections of Angarsk during peak hours. With the help of the program complex «Ecologist» calculations of concentrations of the main harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere by vehicles were carried out.

The Application of Fractal Analysis for the Lichen Indication of Technogenic Impact from a Linear Source of Atmospheric Pollution

A new method of processing the actual material of lichen-indication studies, based on the study of morphological changes in the lichen thallus, is proposed. Assessment of the degree of technogenic impact on the components of the environment from a linear source of atmospheric pollution is performed by calculating and correlating the fractal index of anthropogenic load levels and the processes of its biotic compensation.

Soil-geochemical Studies of Maklasheevka II Settlement and Reconstruction of Paleoenvironment (Cultural Layer of the Early Iron Age)

The article features the results of comprehensive studies of Maklasheevka II fortified settlement carried out at the intersection of natural and humanitarian sciences, and one of the area of this work was integrative soil-archaeological studies. This approach includes a cross-spectrum archaeological and pedological analysis of the ancient soils.

Estimation of Response Time and Sensitivity of the Earth’s Climate System to Radiative Forcing

The Earth’s climate system (ECS) is considered as a linear system whose input is a change in the solar constant, and the output is an anomaly of the globally averaged surface temperature. As a result of the restoration, the impulse response of the system was obtained at time intervals up to 100 months. It has been shown that the response time of ECS can be characterized by a time constant of 1.305 ± 0.026 months. The sensitivity of ECS to radiative forcing is 0.320±0.074 K W-1m2, and the positive feedback coefficient is 1.07±0.25.

To the Question of the Accuracy of «Non-standard» Long-term Forecasts

A special category of long-term forecasts is considered, the object of forecasting is not the anomalies of the hydrometeorological regime (temperature, precipitation), but the dates of its sharp change. Methodological issues are raised to develop adequate methods for estimating such forecasts. The possibility of applying the method of accuracy of short-term forecasts to the justification of long-term forecasts is substantiated.

The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on Air Pollution in Saratov

Saratov is one of the cities of the Volga region where in a relatively small area many industrial enterprises are concentrated emitting into the atmosphere harmful substances which, entering the atmosphere are deposited on the surface, washed out by precipitation and are carried to considerable distances from the place of emission. All of these processes occur with the help of the wind and depend on air temperature, solar radiation, rainfall and other meteorological factors.

Integrated Application of GIS Technology and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the Investigation of Landslide Bodies (on the Example of a Landslide in the Oktyabrsky Gorge of the City of Saratov)

Currently the laser scanning method is increasingly used to record the effects of man-made accidents and natural disasters. At the same time, world practice and experience have shown that laser scan data can be used not only to inventory and refine the state of landslide bodies, but also to monitor and predict their development.

Development of Agriculture in the Resort Zone of Krasnodar Territory in New Economic Conditions

Nowadays there are problems in improving the agricultural production of the Krasnodar region. For the development of agriculture in the resort area of this region, it is necessary to establish certain efficient
and competitive areas of agro-industrial production.

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